Let's start by talking about scientific literacy. I'm going to use a weak definition of scientific literacy, one that simply requires familiarity with the Baconian method of inquiry. I don't want to place an exact number on this issue, but I'd wager the vast majority of the population of "educated" countries is scientifically illiterate.
Rings true. I was the only one I know in graduate school (physics) that took any philosophy of science.
Scientists today are mostly trained to be lab technicians seeking experimental evidence for already "known" theories applied to incremental more "interesting" settings.